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ANIMAL AND PLANT DEVELOPMENT

ANIMAL AND PLANT DEVELOPMENT

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माहिती

शैक्षणिक माहिती

  • शैक्षणिक टप्पा पदवीधर

  • विद्याशाखा विज्ञान

  • शाखा Biotechnology

  • इयत्ता तिसरे वर्ष

  • सत्र I

  • माध्यम इंग्रजी

  • मंडळ/विद्यापीठ पुणे

  • विषय Animal And Plant Development

अभिप्राय

  • या वस्तूबद्दल शेरा/अभिप्राय उपलब्ध नाही. अभिप्राय लिहिणारे सर्वप्रथम व्हा.

प्रस्तावना

1. introduction to development
1.1 introduction
1.2 types of development and branches of embryology
1.3 principal features of development in animals and plants
1.3.1 Phases of Ontogenic Development in Animals
1.3.2 Development in Plants
2. gametogenesis, fertilization, development
2.1 gametogenesis in animals
2.1.1 Spermatogenesis
2.1.2 Oogenesis
2.1.3 Ovum
2.1.4 Differences between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
2.2 gametogenesis in plants
2.3 fertilization in plants
2.4 fertilization in animals
3. types and patterns of cleavage
3.1 introduction
4. gastrulation
4.1 Definition of gastrulation
4.2 morphogenetic movements and morphogenesis
4.3 process of gastrulation
4.4 the early development of frog
4.5 gastrulation in frog
4.6 the early development of chick
4.6.1 The Egg
4.6.2 Tertiary Membranes
4.6.3 Cleavage
4.6.4 Blastula
4.6.5 Gastrulation
4.6.6 Notogenesis
4.6.7 Neurulation
4.6.8 Delimitation of the Embryo
4.6.9 Flexures and Torsion
4.6.10 Structure of 72 hours Chick Embryo
5. concept of competence, determination, commitment, differentiation and developmental plasticity in plant and animals
5.1 Determination of primary organ rudiments
5.2 embryonic induction
5.3 differentiation
5.3.1 Chemical Basis of Differentiation
5.3.2 Role of Genes in Differentiation
5.3.3 Signals to Genes in Differentiation
5.3.4 Recognition of genes by signal molecules
5.3.5 Relation of Differentiation to Mitosis
5.3.6 Differentiation and its Reversibility
5.4 redifferentiation
5.5 developmental plasticity
6. role of genes in patterning and development, concept of stem cells
6.1 pattern formation in drosophila
6.2 Concepts of Stem Cells
6.2.1 Introduction to Stem Cells
6.2.2 Types of Stem Cells
6.2.3 Differenciation of Stem Cells
6.2.4 Adult Stem Cells
6.3 progenitor cells
7. aging and apoptosis
7.1 aging
7.1.1 Definition of Aging
7.1.2 Symptoms of Aging
7.1.3 An Overview of Aging and of Aging Theories
7.1.4 Evolution Theory and Species - Specific Aging
7.1.5 Sex and Aging
7.1.6 Aging of other Organ Systems
7.1.7 The Free Radical Theory of Aging
7.1.8 Mitochondria and Aging
7.1.9 The Glycation Theory of Aging
7.1.10 Protein Damage and Maintenance in Aging
7.1.11 DNA Damage and DNA Repair
7.1.12 Telomeres and Aging
7.1.13 Accelerated Aging Diseases (Segmental Progeria)
7.1.14 Cellular Senescence and Apoptosis in Aging
7.1.15 Longevity Genes (Flies and Worms)
7.1.16 Hormones and Aging
7.1.17 The Immune System and Aging
7.1.18 Inflammation and Aging
7.1.19 Accumulation of Toxins and Chemical Garbage
7.1.20 Cancer and Aging
7.1.21 Caloric Restriction with Adequate Nutrition (CRAN)
7.2 apoptosis: programmed cell death
7.2.1 Discovery and Etymology
7.2.2 Functions
7.3 abnormal development and cancer teratogenesis
7.3.1 Artificial Development of Teratomas
7.3.2 Cancer
8. Cloning in mammals, transgenic technology in plants and animals
8.1 cloning in mammals
8.1.1 Types of Cloning
8.1.2 Earlier Experiments on Cloning
8.1.3 Reproductive Cloning in Animals
8.1.4 Risk Factors for Animal Cloning
8.1.5 Cloning in Reproductive Medicine
8.1.6 Interspecies Bioassay for Reproductive Embryo Cloning
8.1.7 Embryonic Stem Cells for Future Therapeutic Applications
8.1.8 Cloning Via Embryo Splitting
8.1.9 Human Implications of Cloning Research
8.1.10 Human Therapeutic Cloning for Transplantable Tissues
8.1.11 Ethical Issues in Use of Human Stem Cells for Transplantation
8.2 transgenic Technology
8.2.1 Transgenic Technology in Plants
8.2.2 Transgenic Animals
8.2.3 Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics
9. cell fusion and somatic cell genetics
9.1 introduction
9.2 overview of humoral immunity
9.3 clonal selection and lymphocyte amplification in response to individual antigens
10. embryogenesis in plants
10.1 introduction
10.2 embryogenesis in bicotyledons
10.3 embryogenesis in monocotyledons
10.4 embryogenesis in arabidopsis
10.5 meristems
10.5.1 Theories of Meristems
10.5.2 Present Ideas of Shoot and Root Development
10.5.3 Secondary Meristems
10.6 plant hormone
10.6.1 Auxin
10.6.2 Gibberellin
10.6.3 Cytokinins
10.6.4 Abscisic Acid
10.6.5 Ethylene
11. organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, regeneration of plants
11.1 Organogenesis
11.2 somatic embryogenesis
11.2.1 Analogy and Cytology
11.2.2 Factors Affecting Somatic Embryogenesis
11.3 regeneration of plant protoplasts
12. arabidopsis - as a plant development model system
12.1 introduction
12.2 pattern formation
12.2.1 Floral Patterning
12.2.2 Shoot Patterning
12.2.3 Root Patterning