# Digital Techniques

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## माहिती

#### प्रस्तावना

1. Introduction to Digital Techniques
1. Introduction
2. Signals
2.1 Difference between Analog and Digital Signal
3. Electronic Circuit
3.1 Analog Circuit
3.2 Digital Circuit
4. Classification of Logic Families
4.1 Characteristics of Logic Gates
5. Comparison of Digital IC Logic Families
6. Number System
6.1 Decimal Number System
6.2 Binary Number System
6.3 Octal Number System
7. 1’s and 2’s Complement Method
8. Binary Arithmetic
9. Codes
9.1 BCD Code
9.2 BCD Arithmetic
2. Logic Gates
1. Introduction
2. Important Terms of Logic Systems
3. Logic Gate
3.1 Basic Logic Gate
3.3 Exclusive OR or EX-OR or XOR gate
3.3 Exclusive NOR or EX-NOR or XNOR gate
3.4 Derived Gates
3.5 Universal Gate
4. Boolean Algebra
4.1 Basic Boolean Laws
5. De Morgan’s Theorems
6. Duality Theorem
7. Simplification and Construction of Boolean Expression using Boolean         Algebra
3. Combinational Logic Circuits
1. Introduction
2. Standard Representations for Logical Functions (SOP AND POS)
2.1 Sum of Products (SOP)
2.2 Product of Sums (POS)
3. K-Map Representation and Minimization (for 2, 3 and 4 variables)
3.1 Two Variable K-map
3.2 Three Variable K-map
3.3 Four Variable K-Map
4. Concept of Adders / Subtractors
4.2 Subtractor
5. Multiplexers (Mux)
5.1 2:1 Multiplexer
5.2 4:1 Multiplexer
5.3 8:1 Multiplexer
5.4 Multiplexer Tree
5.5 Multiplexer ICs
6. Demultiplxer (Demux)
6.1 1:2 De-Multiplexer
6.2 1:4 De-multiplexer
6.3 1:8 De-multiplexer
6.4 1:16 De-Multiplexer
6.5 Demultiplexer Tree
6.6 Demultiplexer ICs
7. Encoder
7.1 Octal to Binary Encoder
7.2 Decimal to BCD Encoder
7.3 Priority Encoder
8. Decoder
8.1 Demultiplexer as Decoder
8.2 BCD to 7-Segment Decoder – (IC 7446 or IC 7447)
10. Digital Comparator
10.1 1- Bit Comparator
10.2 2-Bit Comparator
10.3 IC 7485 (4-Bit Comparator)
11. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Solved Examples
4. Sequential Logic Circuit
1. Introduction
2. One-Bit Memory Cell (Flip-Flops)
3. Clock Signal
4. R-S Flip-Flop using NAND gates
5. Clocked S-R Flip-Flop using NAND Gates
5.1 Asynchronous Inputs Preset and Clear (Pr and Cr)
5.2 Clocked S-R Flip-Flop with Preset and Clear
6. J-K Flip-Flop
6.1 J-K Flip-Flop with Preset and Clear
6.2 Race Around Condition
7. Triggering Methods
8. Master-Slave J-K Flip-Flop (M-S J-K Flip-Flop)
9. D and T flip-flops
9.1 D Flip-Flop (Delay Flip-Flop) 18
9.2 T Flip-flop (Toggle Flip-Flop)
10. Applications of Flip-Flop
11. Counter
12. Asynchronous Counter
12.1 2-Bit Asynchronous Up Counter
12.2 3-Bit Asynchronous Up Counter
12.3 4-Bit Asynchronous Up Counter
12.4 3-Bit Asynchronous Down Counter
12.5 4-Bit Asynchronous Down Counter
12.6 3-Bit Asynchronous Up/Down Counter
13. MOD-N Counter
13.1 Mod-5 Counter
13.2 Mod-9 Counter
13.3 Mod-12 Counter
14. Synchronous Counter
14.1 2-Bit Synchronous Up Counter
14.2 3-Bit Synchronous Up Counter
14.3 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter
14.4 3-Bit Synchronous Down Counter
14.5 4-Bit Synchronous Down Counter
14.6 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter44
15. Shift Register
15.1 Types of Shift Registers
16. Applications
16.1 Applications of Counter
16.2 Applications of Shift Register
17. Ring Counter
17.1 Johnson Counter or Twisted Ring Counter
18. Comparisons
18.1 Comparison between Combinational and Sequential Logic Systems
18.2 Comparison between D Flip-Flop and T Flip-Flop
18.3 Comparison between Asynchronous and Synchronous Counter
Solved Examples
19. Memories
20. Memory Operation
21. Classification of Memories
21.1 Classification based on Principle of Operation
21.2 Classification based on Physical Characteristics
21.3 Classification based on Mode of Access
21.4 Classification based on Fabrication Technology
23. Random Access Memory (RAM)
23.1 Static RAM (SRAM)
23.2 Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
24. Comparisons
24.1 Comparison between Volatile and Non-Volatile Memories
24.2 Comparison between RAM and ROM
24.3 Comparison between SRAM and DRAM
24.4 Comparison between EPROM and EEPROM
5. A-D and D-A Converters
1. Introduction
2. Digital to Analog Converters (DAC)
2.1 Weighted - Resistor D/A Converter
2.2 R - 2R Ladder D/A Converter
2.3 DAC Specifications
3. Analog to Digital Converters (ADC)
3.1 Staircase Ramp or Counter Type ADC
solved paper of winter 2013

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